|Copper – International Crystals Encyclopedia https://www.gemzworld.com/
|Origin – the place or situation from which something comes, the beginning of something’s existence, the point from which it starts out, the thing from which it is ultimately derived.|
|Copper is a precious metal that has a red/orange metallic luster. It is present in the earth’s crust and can be found as a polycrystal.
The majority of copper is extracted from huge open pit mines as copper sulfides, it can also be found in crystals such as chalcocite and chalcopyrite, copper carbonates like malachite and azurite and cuprite which is classed as a copper oxide. The metal can also be extracted through the in-situ leach process which involves hydraulic drilling with a leaching solution to pump the copper to the surface.
All crystals belong to a different group according to the basis of the relationships of their axes. There are 7 systems and 32 classes of symmetry. Copper belongs to the face –centered Cubic system.
|History – the past considered as a whole, the whole series of past events connected with someone or sometihing, a continuous typically chronological record of importance.|
|Copper has been used for over 10,000 years and has a history that can date back to the oldest civilizations. It is estimated that it was discovered in the Middle East as a pendant of copper was found in Northern Iraq that dates back to 8700 BC.
It is said that copper smelting was implemented in China around or before 2800 BC, in Central America around 600 AD and estimated at around 9th/10th AD in West Africa. A male, named when found as Otzi the Iceman, was thought to date back to 3300 BC and was discovered with a copper headed axe. His hair contained high levels of arsenic which was thought to suggest his involvement in copper smelting from that time.
Today copper is so widely used that concern has been raised over its reserves. Copper is recyclable and is used as an electricity conductor among many other things. Copper bracelets are widely used to ward off arthiritic symptoms.
|Specification – the act of describing or identifying something precisely, a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.|
|Copper appears alongside Silver and Gold in Group 11 of the Periodic table. It has a filled d-electron shell with a one s-orbital electron placed on top of it.
Copper is extremely soft and has a high thermal conductivity which is a factor in its extremely high electrical conductivity. It is usually fine grained in polycrystalline form and has a high ductility in single crystals.
|Varieties – a number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality.|
|Copper appears commonly as a compound, alloy or oxide. There are many different varieties of these.
|Esoteric Attributes – a quality or feature as characteristic of or possed by something.|
|Crystals by their very nature are able to receive and focus energy in different ways. Their molecular structure enables them to be used to amplify and convert energy and hence crystals have been used for centuries to aid healing and transmute energy both in the metaphysical and physical world.
Because each crystal family has different formational backgrounds, each also has different vibrtional frequencies that can be harnesed and used for specific purposes. Each therefore have specific qualities that can be used to help a person heal on the many different levels of their being.
The following is a list of healing attributes associated with Copper crystals.
|Mental: Copper is said to instill a sense of justice whilst it also lends itself to playful and fun creativity.|
|Emotional: Copper brings harmony and a sense of beauty to all. It offers love for all human beings.|
|Physical: Copper is well known as an arthiritic healing aid. It also strengthens the brain and liver and alleviates muscle cramps and menstrual pain. It is used for fertility purposes too.|
Crystal Chart – Copper
|Birthstone:||Copper is associated with the Astrological signs of Taurus and Sagittarius.|
|Apperance:||Soft, fine fibrous pollycrystalline.|
|Aura:||Copper is a conductor of energies of all things spiritual. It provides balance, synchronicity and opens up communication channels.|
|Colour:||The colour copper is a distinct reddish brown.|
|Chakra:||Copper is associated with the Root Chakra and secondary to the Sacral Chakra. It works with all the Chakras to draw in higher energies and open communication channels.|
International Crystals – References and resources:
Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals, Earthdancer Books, 2009
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Crystal, 6th ed. 2014
World of Earth Science, Quartz, 2003
Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Crystal Healing, 2001
New Oxford American Dictionary