Alexandrite


Alexandrite – Gemzworld Crystals Encyclopedia

Alexandrite – This is our research and findings on this mineral

Origin – The place or situation from which something comes, the beginning of existence, the point from which it starts, the thing from which it is ultimately derived.

Alexandrite is an extremely rare gemstone initially discovered in the Sanarka River in Russia’s southern Ural Mountains.

The chemical composition exhibits Chrysoberyl’s variants consisting of a chrysoberyl cats eye and transparent Chrysoberyl, yet has chromium as an impurity along with iron and titanium, which accounts for its distinctive ability to change colour. Only this type of Chrysoberyl that can display these colour changes is Alexandrite.

Alexandrite is a strongly pleochroic | trichroic gem that changes colour about the light source. In daylight, they can be green (Russian) before switching to red in incandescent light.

All crystals belong to a different group according to the basis of the relationships of their axes. There are seven systems and 32 classes of symmetry. Alexandrite crystals belong to the orthorhombic system.

History – the past considered whole, the whole series of past events connected with someone or something, a continuous typically chronological record of importance.

Alexandrite has a recently modern history, documented as being discovered in Russia’s Ural Mountains as late as the 1830s.

The gem is said to have been named after the Russian Tzar Alexander. As it displays the red and green colours symbolic of Imperial Russia’s old stains, it became the national stone of Tzarist Russia.

Top-quality mined Alexandrite was extremely rare and, as the Russian mines depleted, was extremely scarce. A similar hue was found later in Brazilian mines in the 1980s yet were not as great as the quality of colour that the Russian gems possessed.

Jewellers highly seek the stone of a quality comparable to the Russian one due to its aesthetic value and rarity. Specialist dealers mainly supply it.

Specification – the act of describing or identifying something precisely, a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.

Alexandrite has a good hardness of 8.5 on the MOH’s scale and is valued in relation to the more significant distinction of colour change from green to red. Some of the less valued Alexandrite’s change from green to a brownish colour instead.

The crystals feature cyclic twins called trillings which have a hexagonal appearance however are featured due to the formation of a triplet of twins at distinctive angles.

Natural Alexandrite gems are rarely found in jewellery due to their value and scarcity; however, synthetic lab-formed types are available on a more common basis.

Varieties – A number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality.

Alexandrite is a type of Chrysoberyl and so falls in with other Crysoberyl types, including:

  • Yellowish-Green Chrysoberyl
  • Cats Eye or Cymomphane

However, the only other variety of Alexandrite is created synthetically or simulated to replicate Alexandrite through corundum traced with elements like vanadium.

Esoteric Attributes: A quality or feature as characteristic of or possed by something.

Crystals, by their very nature, can receive and focus energy in different ways. Their molecular structure enables them to be used to amplify and convert energy. Hence, crystals have been used for centuries to aid healing and transmute energy both in the metaphysical and physical world.

Because each crystal family has different formational backgrounds, each also has different vibrational frequencies that can be harnessed and used for specific purposes. Each, therefore, has particular qualities that can be used to help a person heal on the many different levels of their being.

The following is a list of healing attributes associated with Alexandrite crystals.

Mental: Alexandrite is said to strengthen willpower and inspiration. It promotes imaginative powers igniting confidence in risk-taking and a more excellent perception of the inner voice.

Emotional: Alexandrite intensifies and heightens dreams and heightens the perception of emotion.

Physical: The Alexandrite gem is known to stimulate the liver and aid physical inflammations. It is also an aid for nerve disorders and to strengthen the senses.

Crystal Chart – Alexandrite

Crystal:                        Alexandrite

Mineralogy:                Chrysoberyl

Geometric form:         Orthorhombic

Formation:                  Tertiary

Family:                         Quartz

Birthstone:                  Ayurvedic Birthstones – Alexandrite is not associated with Ayurvedic Birthstones.                       Astrology Birthstone (Zodiac)  Alexandrite is associated with June, and the Scorpio sign an alternate Zodiac stone.

Appearance:               Very hard (8.5) and brittle.  It has a trillings formation similar to a                                      hexagonal shape and is distinctive by its ability to change colour most valuable when from green to red.

Aura:                           Alexandrite is said to have regenerative powers and, as well as re-inforcing self-esteem, it escalates spiritual evolution and aligns the mental, emotional and etheric bodies.

Colour:                         Alexandrites mined in Russia are distinctive in their colour change from a green hue to a red hue; however, many mined elsewhere exhibit a shift from light green to a brownish colour.

Chakra:                        Alexandrites, depending on colour, can relate to the Throat, Heart and                              Third Eye Chakras

Gemzworld Crystals – References and resources:

Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals, Earthdancer Books, 2009

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Crystal, 6th ed. 2014

World of Earth Science, Quartz, 2003

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Crystal Healing, 2001

http://gemstone-dictionary.com/birthstones-by-month.php

New Oxford American Dictionary

 

You can watch our Free Videos on Crystals HERE

Learn to become a Crystal Therapist HERE

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See our wonderful selection of Healing Crystals HERE

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Rhodonite


rhodonite-mineral rhodonite-cabochon

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Ruby


Ruby – International Crystals Encyclopedia https://www.gemzworld.com/

 

Originthe place or situation from which something comes, the beginning of something’s existence, the point from which it starts out, the thing from which it is ultimately derived.
Ruby is a variety of the aluminium oxide mineral, Corundum. The mineral tpically forms within metamorphic rocks however as mining in some cases is not economically viable from these primary deposits, they can be sourced from secondary deposits where they have settled away from their primary sedimentary source.

 

Only around 1% of natural rubies found are of gem quality. They are typically picked and separated from other minerals and gravel in river sediments. The hue of the ruby colour is generally determined by the location in which the crystal is sourced as it is defined by the impurities that form within the Corundum.

 

All crystals belong to a different group according to the basis of the relationships of their axes. There are 7 systems and 32 classes of symmetry. Ruby crystals belong to the Trigonal system.

 

Historythe past considered as a whole, the whole series of past events connected with someone or sometihing, a continuous typically chronological record of importance.
The name ruby is derived from the Latin, ruber, which signifies red. It is said to be one of the twelve most precious stones created by God. The Ruby has also been hailed as the King of Precious Stones. This is what the ancient language of Sanskrit calls it as referred to by the name ratnaraj.

 

The stone was mentioned way back in the first Century AD by the philosopher and scholor Pliny who described it by its hardness and density. In ancient Hindu times the Ruby was offered to the God, Krishna in  the belief that they would then be destined to be re-born as emporers.

 

In the Western world the Ruby was considered to be a high class, Royal gem worn by the upper classes in the wish for love, wealth and wisdom.

 

One of the largest sources of rubies was Burma, now Myanmar where one of the largest rubies in the world was mined. This Burmese ruby was donated to the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History by the philanthropist, Peter Buck, in memory of his late wife. The largest mined ruby though was the Liberty Bell Ruby which was stolen in a heist in 2011.

 

The Ruby is still a highly sought gem throughout the world, with many man-made synethtic variations in circulation.

Specificationthe act of describing or identifying something precisely, a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.
 

The ruby is one of the hardest natural gems, measuring 9 on the Mohs scale rating of hardness. Only diamond and moissanite are harder. It has a conchoidal, splintery fracture with a brittle tenacity and a subadamantine, vitreous, pearly luster.

 

The natural gem should have needle type, rutile inclusions (silk) and, if not, that indicates that the stone has been treated. The quality of the natural ruby is also defined by its colour shade with the most sought after being the brightest, pigeon blood red. Rubies can also display chatoyancy or a cats eye reflection.

 

 

Varietiesa number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality.
Ruby is a variety of the mineral Conundrum, the other variety being Saphire.

 

Esoteric Attributesa quality or feature as characteristic of or possed by something.
Crystals by their very nature are able to receive and focus energy in different ways. Their molecular structure enables them to be used to amplify and convert energy and hence crystals have been used for centuries to aid healing and transmute energy both in the metaphysical and physical world.

 

Because each crystal family has different formational backgrounds, each also has different vibrational frequencies that can be harnesed and used for specific purposes. Each therefore have specific qualities that can be used to help a person heal on the many different levels of their being.

 

The following is a list of healing attributes associated with Ruby crystals.

 

Mental: The Ruby is an aid to the determination to commit to something. It also enhances performance.
Emotional: The Ruby is a promoter of courage and bravery , it also strengthens virtue and enhances the passion and joie de vivre for life.
Physical: The Ruby is a stimulator of the adrenal glands, sexual organs and circulation. It increases blood pressure and fever.

 

Crystal Chart – Ruby

 

Crystal: Ruby
Mineralogy: Corundum
Geometric form: Trigonal
Formation: Primary sometimes Tertiary
Family: Corundum
Birthstone: Ruby is associated with those born in the month of July. It is also associated with the astrological sign of Capricorn.
Appearance: Conchoidal, splintery fracture with a brittle tenacity. A hard stone that measures 9 on the Mohs Scale Rating.
Aura: Ruby shields the aura from negative and psychic attack. It is a stimulator of energy and allows for sharper energy communication.
Colour: Various hues of red.
Chakra: Ruby is primarily associated with the Root Chakra stimulating energy flow and fortifying the ability to manifest desires and dreams.

 

 

 

International Crystals – References and resources:

 

Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals, Earthdancer Books, 2009

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Crystal, 6th ed. 2014

World of Earth Science, Quartz, 2003

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Crystal Healing, 2001

http://gemstone-dictionary.com/birthstones-by-month.php

New Oxford American Dictionary

 

 

 

 

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Red Kidney


kidney_ore_dolomite_friz_parks_1_147

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Garnet


Garnet Hessonite – International Crystals Encyclopedia https://www.gemzworld.com/ 
Originthe place or situation from which something comes, the beginning of something’s existence, the point from which it starts out, the thing from which it is ultimately derived.
Hessonite is a variety of Grossular which, in turn, is a calcium aluminium variety of the Garnet gemstone group. Grossular is found in contact metamorphosed limestones with wernerite, wollastonite, diopside and vesuvianite. 

Hessonite is found in placer deposits mainly in India and Sri Lanka and its source in it’s native matrix sometimes occurs. Other significant deposits can be found in California and Brazil.

 

All crystals belong to a different group according to the basis of the relationships of their axes. There are 7 systems and 32 classes of symmetry. Hessonite crystals belong to the Isometric system.

 

Historythe past considered as a whole, the whole series of past events connected with someone or sometihing, a continuous typically chronological record of importance.
Hessonite is also referred to as cinnamon stone and has long been mistaken for other stones such as Zircon. These zircon termed stones, which were notable for their ability to be engraved, where shown many years ago to be Hessonite by Sir AH Church, due to the differentiation in the gravity of the stone. 

The name derives from the Greek word Hesson, which means inferior. This was due to the density of the stone being lower than many of the other Garnet varieties.

 

The stone is mainly mined in India and Sri Lanka and is used extensively for jewellery due to its attractive brown to orange colouring.

 

 

 

Specificationthe act of describing or identifying something precisely, a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.
Hessonite is an uncommon crystal  that is defined by its charcteristic brown/orange colour. The reference to its inferiority defined by its name determined by the low hardness and density of the stone. The hardness measures 6.5 to 7 on the Mohs scale compared to the 7.5 average of most other garnets.

 

The crystal has a conchoid to uneven fracure with a vitreous to greasy luster and a single or anomalous double refractive optical property.

 

Hessonite crystal is used widely in jewellery, similar to the Zircon gem.

 

Varietiesa number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality.
Hessonite is a unique gem that is a variety of the Garnet mineral species. The garnet varieties include but are not limited to; 

  • Grossular
  • Hydrogrossular
  • Melanite
  • Rhodolite
  • Spessartine
  • Pyrope

 

 

Esoteric Attributesa quality or feature as characteristic of or possed by something.
Crystals by their very nature are able to receive and focus energy in different ways. Their molecular structure enables them to be used to amplify and convert energy and hence crystals have been used for centuries to aid healing and transmute energy both in the metaphysical and physical world. 

Because each crystal family has different formational backgrounds, each also has different vibrational frequencies that can be harnesed and used for specific purposes. Each therefore have specific qualities that can be used to help a person heal on the many different levels of their being.

 

The following is a list of healing attributes associated with Hessonite crystals.

 

Mental: Hessonite aids in the appreciation of ones abilities and gives confidence in creativity and self-expression.
Emotional: Hessonite gives clarity into emotion and helps to sooth emotional agitation. It brings confidence of expression into social situations.
Physical: The crystal aids in the regulation of the hormone balance in the cases of the hypo and hyper function of glands. It also strengthens the liver and kidneys.

 

Crystal Chart – Hessonite

 

Crystal: Hessonite
Mineralogy: Grossular containing iron.
Geometric form: Isometric
Formation: Tertiary
Family: Silicates
Birthstone: Hessonite is associated with the Astrological signs of Capricorn, Aquarius and Aries. 

 

Appearance: Conchoid to uneven fracure with a vitreous to greasy luster and a single or anomalous double refractive optical property.
Aura: Hessonite is explorative and enhancing in the auric energy as it is used as an energy guide to journey to a destination.
Colour: Hessonite appears as a vivd brownish/orange colour..
Chakra: Hessonite is associated with the Root Chakra and can also enhance psychic abilities when placed on the Third Eye Chakra.

 

 

 

International Crystals – References and resources:

 

Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals, Earthdancer Books, 2009

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Crystal, 6th ed. 2014

World of Earth Science, Quartz, 2003

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Crystal Healing, 2001

http://gemstone-dictionary.com/birthstones-by-month.php

New Oxford American Dictionary

 

 

 

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Hematite


Hematite with Magnetite – International Crystals Encyclopedia https://www.gemzworld.com/

 

 
 
Originthe place or situation from which something comes, the beginning of something’s existence, the point from which it starts out, the thing from which it is ultimately derived.
Hematite is the mineral form of one of the types of iron oxides. It is determined as iron (III) oxide which has the chemical formula Fe2O3.

 

Hematite, found in banded iron formations, can occur from volcanic activity though it is often found due to the precipitation of water where it can form in layers in standing water like springs or lakes.

 

When weathering processes occur in soil then clay sized hematite crystals can occur. This can bring our the redish streak of colour often found in older , weathered soils.

 

All crystals belong to a different group according to the basis of the relationships of their axes. There are 7 systems and 32 classes of symmetry. Hematite crystals belong to the Trigonal system.

 

 
Historythe past considered as a whole, the whole series of past events connected with someone or sometihing, a continuous typically chronological record of importance.
The name Hematite derives from the Greek word blood which is a reference to the reddish streak that forms through weathering. The ancient Greek name for Hematite termed it as a blood red stone and this name was transposed to the latin Lapis Haematites which in turn was taken up by Middle French which used the term Hématite Pierre.

 

Hematite was used as a pigment where it was taken from the hematite covered ochre clay. It was one of the earliest forms of writing pigment, used as red chalk over 164,000 years ago in South Africa by the Pinnacle Point man. Chalk mines were found in poland dating back to 5000 BC and also in old graveyards from up to 80,000 years ago. The mineral has also been referenced with the Linear Pottery Culture in the BC age, located at the Upper Rhine.

 

It was widely used in jewellery in the Victorian era and also in the craft of gilding as well as in other creative crafts.

 

 
Specificationthe act of describing or identifying something precisely, a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.
Hematite has penetration and tamellar twinning with no cleavage. It has an uneven or sub-conchoidal fracture with a brittle tenacity. The mineral is opaque with a metallic to splendant luster. Hematite has magnetic qualities which weakens according to the size of the item.

 

The mineral is used in arts and for the purposes of adornment and jewellery.

 

 
Varietiesa number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality.
There are different varieties of Hematite, these include and are not limited to;

 

  • Kidney Ore
  • Iron Rose
  • Martite
  • Specularite

 

 

 
Esoteric Attributesa quality or feature as characteristic of or possed by something.
Crystals by their very nature are able to receive and focus energy in different ways. Their molecular structure enables them to be used to amplify and convert energy and hence crystals have been used for centuries to aid healing and transmute energy both in the metaphysical and physical world.

 

Because each crystal family has different formational backgrounds, each also has different vibrational frequencies that can be harnesed and used for specific purposes. Each therefore have specific qualities that can be used to help a person heal on the many different levels of their being.

 

The following is a list of healing attributes associated with Hematite crystals.

 

Mental: Hematite crystals bring determination and resolve in the pursuance of aims and a resolve to stand up for them if neccessary.
 
Emotional: Hematite brings the resolve to pursue life goals and improvement of life situations. It stimulates the determination to progress.
 
Physical: Hematite is an aid to the stimulation of the gall bladder, liver and glands. It also helps to assimilate iron and the building of blood.
 

 

Crystal Chart – Hematite

 

Crystal: Hematite
Mineralogy: Iron Oxide
Geometric form: Trigonal
Formation: Tertiary
Family: Oxides
Birthstone: Hematite is associated with the Astrological Signs of Aries and Aquarius.
Appearance: Brittle with an uneven to sub-conchoidal fracture The mineral is opaque with a metallic to splendant luster with a Mohs scale rating of 5.5-6.5.
Aura: Hematite brings balance to the energy whilst absorbing the negative energies that arise. It is a protective stone that eases stress and brings calm.
Colour: Hematite appears in the colours red, black and gray and can carry a red streak.
Chakra: Hematite is associated with and brings positive vibrations to the Root Chakra where it promotes co-operativeness and calm.

 

 

 

International Crystals – References and resources:

 

Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals, Earthdancer Books, 2009

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Crystal, 6th ed. 2014

World of Earth Science, Quartz, 2003

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Crystal Healing, 2001

http://gemstone-dictionary.com/birthstones-by-month.php

New Oxford American Dictionary

 

 

 

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Jade


Jadeite slab6467c239f4e80c05c2e672511f4c484b

 

Origin

Jade or Nephrite derives its name from the Greek word “nephros” meaning kidney. Jade was long considered an “imperial gem”. Jade has long been an esteemed majestic stone in the Chinese empire similar to diamonds and gold in western countries. Widely considered an elite stone it was presented to the Chinese imperial court where skilled artisans turned them into masterpieces. Jade was widely used in the making of Chinese scholars’ objects like calligraphy brushes, mouthpieces and opium pipes. Nephrite jade can be found in China for utilitarian and ceremonial purposes, from indoor and decorative items to jade burial sites.  Indigenous tribes in Mexico, central and South America and New Zealand carved jade into deity masks and ritual artefacts.

Jade is comprised of metamorphic rocks called silicate minerals called Nephrite and Jadeite. These are then classified into grades in the ABC Treatment System. Nephrite is a calcium magnesium silicate while jadeite is a sodium aluminium silicate. Each has different compositions, hardness, densities and crystal structures.

Nephrite is usually a creamy white form, mid to deep olive green, brown and black. It has a smooth surface polish and the most common form of jade.  Jadeite comes in blue, lavender mauve, pink and emerald green. Different colours were imported to Burma in 1800. It is hard and lustrous, rarer than Nephrite and more valuable. Imperial Jade is the rarest and most treasured form.

Physical

It is a powerful cleansing stone. It aids the spleen, kidneys and supra-adrenal glands, removing toxins and balancing fluids. It helps treats reproductive disorders. Imperial jade is most useful for the healing process after surgery.

 

Emotional

Jade is a dream stone it releases negative thoughts, irritability and soothes the mind it helps release ones limitation one has put on oneself. It helps access the spiritual world, encourages creativity and dream interpretation. It is the stone of serenity in the midst of a storm. It recharges energy and heals feelings of guilt. It is a crystal of love and supports new love. It provides confidence, self-assurance, self-reliance and self suffiency.

Other varieties include:

Brown Jade is grounding. It connects to the earth and provides comfort and reliability.

Lavender Jade alleviates emotional hurt and provides spiritual nourishment. Its energy is of the highest etheric spectrum.

Orange Jade brings joy and teaches the interconnectedness of all beings. It is energetic and quietly stimulating.

Purple Jade encourages mirth and happiness, and purifies one’s aura. It dispels the negative and increases one’s level of discernment.

Red Jade is a stone of life-force energy, dispelling fear that holds one back, and urges one to action.

White Jade filters distractions, pulls in relevant, constructive information and aids in decision making.

Yellow Jade is cheerful and energetic, a stone of assimilation and discrimination.

 

Attributes

It is most valued for its metaphysical properties. It is used widely as a protective talisman while traveling and an amulet of good luck and friendship.

 

Specifications

 

Mineral :  Silicate
Geometric Form :  Primary
Formation :  Monoclinic
Family:  Jade
Colour Ray:  Vary
Birthstone:  Leo Virgo August
Appearance:  Transluent to opaque
Aura:  Vary
Colour:  green lavender red yellow white black
Chakra:  Heart chakra

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Jasper


Jasper, Red – International Crystals Encyclopedia https://www.gemzworld.com/ 
Originthe place or situation from which something comes, the beginning of something’s existence, the point from which it starts out, the thing from which it is ultimately derived.
Jasper is a amalgam of micro quartz with other mineral phases that can include chalcedony. It is an opaque variety of silica that contains impurities which allows for the various colour forms dependant on the sediment or ash. 

The common red coloured Jasper is caused bytraces of iron (lll) or hematite inclusions. Patterns can occur when the silica rich sediment or volcanic ash forms through flow and depositional occurance.

 

All crystals belong to a different group according to the basis of the relationships of their axes. There are 7 systems and 32 classes of symmetry. Agate crystals belong to the Trigonal system.

 

Historythe past considered as a whole, the whole series of past events connected with someone or sometihing, a continuous typically chronological record of importance.
The term ‘Jasper’ refers to the spotting or speckled patterns on the stone and is used to denote a number of stones that are blessed with these pattern types. The documentation in history of picture jasper is unclear, as a result of this, as it is difficult to establish which Jasper type is being referenced through the ages. 

There are some noted stories regarding red jasper. One story is that a segment of Red Jasper was embedded on the hilt of Balmung, the legendary sword of the Norse legend Siegfried. Another details how in 1636 the Gemmarum et Lapidum Historia noted that a woman wearing red jasper was cured from the painful chronic hemmoraging that she was inflicted with.

 

Red Jasper is commonly found and is used for gemstones and ornamentation.

 

 

Specificationthe act of describing or identifying something precisely, a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.
Jasper is an opaque rock that depicts a banding or pattern based on the flow or depositional settlement of where it is mined. It can appear orbicular or brecciated and has a gravity of 2.5 to 2.9. 

The crystal has an earthy luster with a splintery conchoidal fracture and a Mohs Hardness scale rating of 6.5-7.

 

The stone is widely used as a gem and for ornamental purposes. When polished it is a fantastic stone for use on snuff boxes, vases and seals.

 

Varietiesa number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality.
As well as Red Jasper, there are many different varieties of Jasper, these include and are not limited to; 

  • Poppy Jasper
  • Rainbow Jasper
  • Picture Jasper
  • Iron Jasper
  • Vulcan jasper
  • Green Jasper
  • Turitella Jasper
  • Landscape Jasper
  • Yellow Jasper

 

 

Esoteric Attributesa quality or feature as characteristic of or possed by something.
Crystals by their very nature are able to receive and focus energy in different ways. Their molecular structure enables them to be used to amplify and convert energy and hence crystals have been used for centuries to aid healing and transmute energy both in the metaphysical and physical world. 

Because each crystal family has different formational backgrounds, each also has different vibrational frequencies that can be harnesed and used for specific purposes. Each therefore have specific qualities that can be used to help a person heal on the many different levels of their being.

 

The following is a list of healing attributes associated with Red Jasper crystals.

 

Mental: Red Jasper is a crystal of honour and courage that allows us to work well through unpleasant chores. It creates a spiritual alertness as well as strengthening the qualities of discipline and methodical leanings.
Emotional: Red Jasper creates energy and enables us to have the courage of conviction. This courage can define honest and strong relationships where the stone helps to dissipate any shame or guilt that may be had about sexual issues.
Physical: Red Jasper is a warming stone that increases blood flow and blood circulation. It is used to stabilise pregnancy and to protect healthy fetuses.

 

Crystal Chart – Red Jasper

 

Crystal: Red Jasper
Mineralogy: Jasper containing Hematite
Geometric form: Trigonal
Formation: Secondary
Family: Silicates Quartz
Birthstone: Red Jasper is associated with the Astrological signs of Scorpio and Aries.
Appearance: Opaque with an earthy luster. Red Jasper has a splintery conchoidal fracture and a Mohs Hardness rating of 6.5-7.
Aura: Red Jasper is used as a grounding mechanism for the aura. It allows stability and connects to the earth energy and vibrations.
Colour: Red Jasper is distinctive due to its red hue.
Chakra: Red Jasper is associated primarily with the Root Chakra as it is used for stimulation of that Chakra.

 

 

 

International Crystals – References and resources:

 

Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals, Earthdancer Books, 2009

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Crystal, 6th ed. 2014

World of Earth Science, Quartz, 2003

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Crystal Healing, 2001

http://gemstone-dictionary.com/birthstones-by-month.php

New Oxford American Dictionary

 

 

 

Mineral : Oxide mineral
Geometric Form : Trigonal Monoclinic
Formation : Secondary
Family: Microcrystalline Quartz
Colour Ray: Vary
Birthstone: March
Appearance: Opaque earthy massive
Aura: Vary
Colour: Brown white grey blue orange yellow red pinkish green purple
Chakra: All
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Leopard Skin


leopard_jasper leopardskin

 

 

Origin

Leopard skin derives its name from old French word jasper meaning “spotted or speckled stone”. It is one of the oldest gemstones and is mentioned several times in the bible.

Leopard skin Jasper is an aggregate of micro quartz or chalcedony.  Chalcedony is a fibrous variety of cryptocrystalline quartz and contains a monoclinic polymorph of quartz called moganite.  Chalcedony is more soluble than quartz and finely grained. It is an impure variety of silica.

Jasper is an opaque stone and originates from the content of the original sediments or ash. During the consolidation process patterns like scenes or images form in the volcanic ash. Diffusion from a centre produces orbicular appearance form leopard skin jasper.

It comes in colours of red, yellow, brown, green and rarely blue. The common red colour is due to iron inclusions.

It is commonly used as a gemstone and for ornamentation purposes.

Physical

Leopard skin jasper is known for its healing energies and is of immense benefit for those experiencing chronic health conditions. It eliminates toxins and decreases body odour. It is very good for self-healing.

Emotional

Jasper is a strong securing, stability stone. It is a powerful protection stone. It is known as the supreme nurturer as it sustains ad supports during times of stress and brings tranquillity and wholeness. Jasper unifies all aspects of your life. It reminds people to help each other. It eases emotional stresses making it a wonderful gemstone to have in your home or workplace.

It is connected with Shamanism. Leopard skin jasper helps connect and communicate with your spiritual animal totem

It enhances ones total vibration and aids in service to others and makes it easier for one to take responsibility. It aids in self-healing. It enhances creative visualisation. It helps find and achieve ones goals. It is associated with strength and stability and brings stability to those who may be experiencing chaotic energies. It helps attract harmonious vibrations including certain circumstances and people that are conducive to one’s own personal growth.

It is said to bring energies of success in work or business. It helps with creative visualization

Attributes

 

Specifications

 

Mineral : Oxide mineral
Geometric Form : Trigonal Monoclinic
Formation : Secondary
Family: Silicates
Colour Ray:  Vary
Birthstone: March Gemini Scorpio
Appearance: Opaque
Aura: Vary
Colour: Black brown red tan yellow
Chakra: Root

 

 

 

 

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Mookaite


Mookaite – International Crystals Encyclopedia https://www.gemzworld.com/

 

 
 
Originthe place or situation from which something comes, the beginning of something’s existence, the point from which it starts out, the thing from which it is ultimately derived.
Mookaite is a formation mix of Jasper and Opalite that is sourced from the Australian, Mooka Creek in the Western Kennedy Ranges. It is a locally named term for a mineral that is geologically classed as a Windalia Radiolarite.

 

Radiolarite is a siliceous sedimantary rock that is classed as chert like, fine grained and homogeneous. It was always asserted that radiolarite was found in pelagic, deep water conditions yet they have been found to occur in sedimentary shallow limestone conditions. The sinking of the sedimentation is quite rapid and, in that process, dissolution occurs that affects the skelton formation of the mineral which can develop to chalcedony and cryptocrystalline quartz dependant on the temperature at sinking phase.

 

Mookaite refers to the formational pattern of the type of Radiolarite found in the Western Australian location which contains radiolara, foraminifera and calcareous nanoplankton fossils. It contains vari-coloured opaline which gives it an attractive quality for the crafting of gem stones.

 

All crystals belong to a different group according to the basis of the relationships of their axes. There are 7 systems and 32 classes of symmetry. Mookaite crystals belong to the Trigonal system.

 

 
Historythe past considered as a whole, the whole series of past events connected with someone or sometihing, a continuous typically chronological record of importance.
Mookaite is a popular gem stone in Australia. It is said that the area where sourced was once part of an ocean long receded. That ocean left an inland sea, which, when that dried, left millions of organisms of skeletal remains that absorbed iron rich minerals. This formation left this type of stone unique to the area and is around 120 million years old.

 

 
Specificationthe act of describing or identifying something precisely, a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.
Mookaite has an opaque transparency and a vitreous to dull luster. The stone measures 7 on the Mohs Scale of hardness rating and has a splintery, conchoidal fracture.

 

It is fully natural, only enhanced by tumbing, cutting and polishing processes.

 

 

 

 
Varietiesa number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality.
Mookaite is unique for the type of stone formed from its location. It is associated with radiolarite minerals.

 

 

 

 
Esoteric Attributesa quality or feature as characteristic of or possed by something.
Crystals by their very nature are able to receive and focus energy in different ways. Their molecular structure enables them to be used to amplify and convert energy and hence crystals have been used for centuries to aid healing and transmute energy both in the metaphysical and physical world.

 

Because each crystal family has different formational backgrounds, each also has different vibrational frequencies that can be harnesed and used for specific purposes. Each therefore have specific qualities that can be used to help a person heal on the many different levels of their being.

 

The following is a list of healing attributes associated with Mookaite crystals.

 

Mental: Mookaite allows for choice as it opens up all the paths of possibility and guides you to the most suitable one. It enhances the flexibility of choice in these situations.
 
Emotional: The stone is fun! It promotes variety and joyfulness and increases the intensity of experience.
 
Physical: Mookaite is an aid to the healing of wounds and enhances the purification of blood. It strengthens the immune system, liver and spleen.
 

 

Crystal Chart – Mookaite

 

Crystal: Mookaite
Mineralogy: Mixture of Jasper and Opalite
Geometric form: Trigonal/Amphorous
Formation: Secondary
Family: Silicates
Birthstone: Mookaite is associated with the Astrological Signs of Scorpio and Virgo.
Appearance: Splintery, conchoidal fracture, opaque transparency and a vitreous to dull luster.
Aura: Mookaite provides connections to the earth energies and is a powerful healing stone that gives intuitive understanding on a deeper level.
Colour: Colours range from red, purple, yellow and white.
Chakra: Mookaite is associated primarily with the Root Chakra allowing the deeper alignment of energy balance between this and the Third Eye and Solar Plexus Chakras.

 

 

 

International Crystals – References and resources:

 

Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals, Earthdancer Books, 2009

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Crystal, 6th ed. 2014

World of Earth Science, Quartz, 2003

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Crystal Healing, 2001

http://gemstone-dictionary.com/birthstones-by-month.php

New Oxford American Dictionary

 

 

 

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Bloodstone


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Origin

Heliotrope (Bloodstone, Jasper) derives its name from the Greek word “Helios” meaning “to turn” conveying the various ancient notions about the manner in which the mineral reflects light. It has been used in carved signet rings for the traditional birthstone for March.

It was also believed that by touching the stone it could stop bleeding. Legend denotes that the bloodstone was formed from the blood of Christ dripping on the green earth and solidifying. It was thought to bring change and use as an amulet to protect against the evil eye. It is a symbol of justice. Medieval Christians used bloodstone to carve scenes of the crucifixion and martyrs. A beautiful example is the seal of the German Emperor Rudolf II which can be seen in Louvre in Paris. Finely pulverised bloodstone is still used as a medicine and aphrodisiac in India.

Bloodstone can be found in Brazil, India, China, Australia and the United States.

Heliotrope is the mineral most commonly known as bloodstone. It is a form of chalcedony which is cryptocrystalline mixture of quartz meaning it cannot be distinguished by the naked eye as the crystals are too small. It is monoclinic polymorph morganite. Bloodstone commonly appears in green chalcedony with red inclusions of iron oxide or red jasper. The inclusions cans sometimes be yellow or plasma. Heliotrope is transparent with red in it while plasma is deep green, opaque with little or no red inclusions. It appears glassy to waxy with an inconsistent colour of green derived from chlorite particles while the red inclusions are caused by iron oxide.

A good quality of bloodstone is one which has solid dark green colour and visible veins of red. The most common shapes bloodstone occurs in are cabochon, cushion cut, emerald cut, octagonal, oval and round.

Physical

It improves physical strength, health and well-being. It is used to protect the immune system .it assists with blood and energy circulation in the body and helps remove blocks. It fortifies the lymph and bladder as well as with flu, colds, infections, inflammation and pus formation. It also helps fortify the liver, spleen and intestine.

Emotional

It enhances self-esteem and self-appreciation and calms anxiety. T promotes love for family and enhances wealth by improving the business. It aids setting boundaries and helps maintain control. It helps you to feel stronger sense of determination and help you regain your personal power. It helps build courage and strength of mind. It also raises self-esteem and was believed in ancient times to help avoid dangerous situations by becoming red in colour. The vibrations help you to dissipate confusion and become more peaceful and serene.

 

Attributes

Specifications

 

Mineral : Chalcedony
Geometric Form : Monoclinic
Formation : Secondary
Family: Quartz
Colour Ray: Red orange
Birthstone: March
Appearance: Red inclusions
Aura: Red & white
Colour: Green quartz with Red spots
Chakra: Heart/Root

 

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Calcite


Calcite – International Crystals Encyclopedia https://www.gemzworld.com/

 

 
 
Originthe place or situation from which something comes, the beginning of something’s existence, the point from which it starts out, the thing from which it is ultimately derived.
 

Calcite is a carbonate mineral of secondary formation that is common to sedimentary rocks, including limestone, yet much of which is formed from the shells of long dead marine organisms.

 

Calcite forms in two stages. The particles from amorphous calcium carbonate dehydrate and crystallize to appear as individual particles of vaterite in the first stage. The second stage is slower where the vaterite transforms through a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism, into calcite.

 

Calcite can also be found in volcanic rocks such as kimberlites, carbonatites and rarely in peridotites.

 

All crystals belong to a different group according to the basis of the relationships of their axes. There are 7 systems and 32 classes of symmetry. Calcite crystals belong to the Trigonal system.

 

 
Historythe past considered as a whole, the whole series of past events connected with someone or sometihing, a continuous typically chronological record of importance.
Calcite comes from the Greek word Chalix which means lime. This could be linked to its common appearance in limestone rocks.

 

The formation is one of the most common minerals on planet earth and is estimated to make up about 4% in weight of the planet earth’s crust.

 

Calcite is found in many cave formations of which the majority, including stalagmites and stalactites are made from Calcite.

 

The crystal is found all over the world. Notable deposits include Palm Wash, California, Iceland, Mexico, Germany, Brazil, England, India and Africa.

 
Specificationthe act of describing or identifying something precisely, a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.
Calcites come in many different shapes and colours. They can form obtuse to acute, tabular, prismatic and as various scalenohedra.

 

Single calcite can stand out for its refraction where the optical property birefringence appears and causes objects viewed through the crystal to appear doubled.

 

As it is a soft crystal with a Moh hardness of 3 it is rarely used as jewellery, instead it is more a collectors stone.

 

 
Varietiesa number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality.
There are many different varieties of Calcite, these include and are not limited to;

 

  • Angel Wing Calcite
  • Blue Calcite
  • Cobalto Calcite
  • Green Calcite
  • Honey Calcite
  • Mangano Calcite
  • Optical Calcite
  • Red Calcite

 

 

 
Esoteric Attributesa quality or feature as characteristic of or possed by something.
Crystals by their very nature are able to receive and focus energy in different ways. Their molecular structure enables them to be used to amplify and convert energy and hence crystals have been used for centuries to aid healing and transmute energy both in the metaphysical and physical world.

 

Because each crystal family has different formational backgrounds, each also has different vibrtional frequencies that can be harnesed and used for specific purposes. Each therefore have specific qualities that can be used to help a person heal on the many different levels of their being.

 

The following is a list of healing attributes associated with Calcite crystals.

 

Mental: Calcite is known for the stone of the mind and is associated with students and academics. It promotes confidence in thinking and improves the memory. It allows for increased power of discernment and gives the ability to react quickly in mental situations.
 
Emotional: Calcite is a calming, centering stone that aids in inward strength and stability.  It improves development and confidence in the outward appearance.
 
Physical: Calcite aids in the fortification of bones, teeth mucous membrane, connective tissue and intestine. It also promotes healthy growth in children.
 

 

Crystal Chart – Calcite

 

Crystal: Calcite
Mineralogy: Calcium Carbonate
Geometric form: Trigonal
Formation: Secondary
Family: Carbonate
Birthstone: Calcite is associated with the Astrological sign of Cancer.
Apperance: Glass like, waxy lustre, white streak, translucent, striped, banded.
Aura: Calcite is a strong cleanser of energy allowing for greater amplification of the energy within the Aura. It clears negative and old energies to open channels for greater energies to pass through.
Colour: Colours range from blue, black, clear, golden, pink, red, yellow and white among others.
Chakra: Calcite aligns with a variety of Chakras dependent on the colour of the crystal.

 

 

 

International Crystals – References and resources:

 

Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals, Earthdancer Books, 2009

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Crystal, 6th ed. 2014

World of Earth Science, Quartz, 2003

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Crystal Healing, 2001

http://gemstone-dictionary.com/birthstones-by-month.php

New Oxford American Dictionary

 

 

 

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Carnelian


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Origin

The Carnelian crystal is a perfect pick-me-up stone. It is largely found in India and derives from a mineral of the Quartz family known as Chalcedony (Cryptocrystalline). Its name descends from the Latin word meaning flesh coloured. The stone is an agate class of chalcedony bearing protection energies. This second chakra stone varies from deep brown red to red orange hues.

Carnelian was once considered strictly the property of the noble class. People who held high social statuses were buried with this stone. Carnelian is one of the oldest stones used for jewellery dating back to 3000 BCE and was found in Egyptian tombs. It is one of the oldest protection stones acting as a guardian from negative forces and activates the first three chakras to bring a surge of life force and creative energies.

Carnelian is found primarily in India as well as various sites in South America, Brazil, India, Siberia and Germany. It is a variety of chalcedony. The most favourable are deep red to red orange hue in colour.

Carnelian is very similar to Sard which is harder and darker but are both varieties of the silica mineral chalcedony and coloured by impurities of iron oxide. Carnelian is formed by silica-rich water percolating through cavities and fissures in volcanic rock. It does not have a typical lattice, usually found in quartz, it is formed from the dissolving of other minerals containing silicates. The packed fibres form in concentric circles or parallel bands,

Physical

Physically Carnelian increases blood circulation, aids sexual anxieties and alleviates problems with the liver, spleen, kidneys and bladder. It improves the quality of blood, stimulates the small intestines, metabolism, circulation and blood flow.

Emotional

It is a crystal of courage, vitality, sexuality, action and confidence. The stone promotes positive life choices, increases self-esteem, creativity and acts as a motivation for success. It enhances the energies for creating your dreams into a reality.

It promotes idealism, a sense of community and pragmatism. It encourages vigour, courage, stability and good moods.

Mentally Carnelian aids mediation, analytical skills and concentration. It aids memory including recalling past lives. It is one of the most healing crystals for healing trauma, stress and emotional wounds which have accumulated in the etheric body and are manifesting as physical properties

Attributes

Specifications

Mineral : Chalcedony
Geometric Form : Secondary
Formation : Cryptocrystalline
Family: Quartz
Colour Ray: Orange
Birthstone: July / Virgo
Appearance: Dull greasy silky waxy orange
Aura: Orange
Colour: Orange red yellow brown black
Chakra: Sacral

 

 

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Citrine


Citrine – International Crystals Encyclopedia https://www.gemzworld.com/

 

 
 
Originthe place or situation from which something comes, the beginning of something’s existence, the point from which it starts out, the thing from which it is ultimately derived.
Citrine is a yellow variety of Quartz which belongs to one of the largest family of minerals; silicates.

Citrine is a crystal of primary formation which means it was formed from molten magma. This usualy happens in cavities in volcanoes where the combination of chemistary and structural arrangements of mineral deposits, atoms and substances pass from gas or liquid into a solid state or by means of going out of solution by precipitation or evaporation. This process creates silica acid which in turn cools to Quartz crystals which, when trace particles of iron infiltrate, turns into Citrine.

 

Though Citrine occurs naturally, it is widely man made when amethysts or smoky quartz are heat treated at high temperatures so that the colour appears similar to citrine. These burnt citrines may contain indiscernable stripes, whereas natural Citrine gives a more cloudy appearance.

 

All crystals belong to a different group according to the basis of the relationships of their axes. There are 7 systems and 32 classes of symmetry. Citrine crystals belong to the Trigonal system.

 

 
Historythe past considered as a whole, the whole series of past events connected with someone or sometihing, a continuous typically chronological record of importance.
The Citrine name was assigned to yellow quartz in 1546. The name is derived from the Latin Citrina, which means yellow. It was known as a merchent stone and was said to attract prosperity for their owner.

 

The history of the stone being documented is unclear as throughout it has been mistaken and traded as other stones such as gold and smoky topaz.

 

The natural stones are widely sought and are quite rare. They are mostly found around amethyst mines with the most important natural deposits sourced within the US, Madagascar and Brazil.

 
Specificationthe act of describing or identifying something precisely, a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.
Natural Citrine appears cloudy or smoky. It is vitreous and transparent with a very brittle conchoidal fracture. It can sometimes have a white streak.

 

Citrine made from heat treated smoky quartz or amethyst can appear to have slight bands running through the stone. It is very hard to tell the difference and is ususally only discernable by gem specialists.

 

 

 

 
Varietiesa number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality.
Citrine is a type of Quartz of the yellow variety. It can sometimes be associated with Ametrine, Amethyst, Smoky Quartz and Gold Quartz.

 

 

 
Esoteric Attributesa quality or feature as characteristic of or possed by something.
Crystals by their very nature are able to receive and focus energy in different ways. Their molecular structure enables them to be used to amplify and convert energy and hence crystals have been used for centuries to aid healing and transmute energy both in the metaphysical and physical world.

 

Because each crystal family has different formational backgrounds, each also has different vibrtional frequencies that can be harnesed and used for specific purposes. Each therefore have specific qualities that can be used to help a person heal on the many different levels of their being.

 

The following is a list of healing attributes associated with Citrine crystals.

 

Mental: Citrine is a joyful, positive crystal that helps to deal with and gives understanding to absorbed impressions.
 
Emotional: Citrine uplifts the emotions and gives a positivity and courage to deal with everyday life. It helps to lift depression and aids self-expression.
 
Physical: Citrine can aid with bed wetting. It strengthens the nerves, pancreas, spleen and stomach.
 

 

Crystal Chart – Citrine

 

Crystal: Citrine
Mineralogy: Yellow Crystal Quartz
Geometric form: Trigonal
Formation: Primary
Family: Silicates
Birthstone: Citrine is associated with the Astrological signs of Libra, Leo, Gemini and Aries.
Appearance: Vitreous, transparent with a brittle conchoidal fracture. Natural crystals will have a smoky, cloudy hue.
Aura: Citrine is a powerful cleanser that is an Aura protector. It grounds negative energy and acts as an early warning system so the protection process can begin to deal with situations as they begin to arise.
Colour: Colours range from yellows, browns and golds. It may sometimes have a white streak.
Chakra: Citrine is associated with the Solar Plexus Chakra and is a cleanser of all Chakras.

 

 

 

International Crystals – References and resources:

 

Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals, Earthdancer Books, 2009

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Crystal, 6th ed. 2014

World of Earth Science, Quartz, 2003

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Crystal Healing, 2001

http://gemstone-dictionary.com/birthstones-by-month.php

New Oxford American Dictionary

 

 

 

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Copper


Copper – International Crystals Encyclopedia https://www.gemzworld.com/

 

 
 
Originthe place or situation from which something comes, the beginning of something’s existence, the point from which it starts out, the thing from which it is ultimately derived.
Copper is a precious metal that has a red/orange metallic luster. It is present in the earth’s crust and can be found as a polycrystal.

 

The majority of copper is extracted from huge open pit mines as copper sulfides, it can also be found in crystals such as chalcocite and chalcopyrite, copper carbonates like malachite and azurite and cuprite which is classed as a copper oxide. The metal can also be extracted through the in-situ leach process which involves hydraulic drilling with a leaching solution to pump the copper to the surface.

 

All crystals belong to a different group according to the basis of the relationships of their axes. There are 7 systems and 32 classes of symmetry. Copper belongs to the face –centered Cubic system.

 

 
Historythe past considered as a whole, the whole series of past events connected with someone or sometihing, a continuous typically chronological record of importance.
Copper has been used for over 10,000 years and has a history that can date back to the oldest civilizations. It is estimated that it was discovered in the Middle East as a pendant of copper was found in Northern Iraq that dates back to 8700 BC.

 

It is said that copper smelting was implemented in China around or before 2800 BC, in Central America around 600 AD and estimated at around 9th/10th AD in West Africa. A male, named when found as Otzi the Iceman, was thought to date back to 3300 BC and was discovered with a copper headed axe. His hair contained high levels of arsenic which was thought to suggest his involvement in copper smelting from that time.

 

Today copper is so widely used that concern has been raised over its reserves. Copper is recyclable and is used as an electricity conductor among many other things. Copper bracelets are widely used to ward off arthiritic symptoms.

 

 

 

 
Specificationthe act of describing or identifying something precisely, a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.
Copper appears alongside Silver and Gold in Group 11 of the Periodic table. It has a filled d-electron shell with a one s-orbital electron placed on top of it.

Copper is extremely soft and has a high thermal conductivity which is a factor in its extremely high electrical conductivity. It is usually fine grained in polycrystalline form and has a high ductility in single crystals.

 

 
Varietiesa number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality.
Copper appears commonly as a compound, alloy or oxide. There are many different varieties of these.

 

 

 
Esoteric Attributesa quality or feature as characteristic of or possed by something.
Crystals by their very nature are able to receive and focus energy in different ways. Their molecular structure enables them to be used to amplify and convert energy and hence crystals have been used for centuries to aid healing and transmute energy both in the metaphysical and physical world.

 

Because each crystal family has different formational backgrounds, each also has different vibrtional frequencies that can be harnesed and used for specific purposes. Each therefore have specific qualities that can be used to help a person heal on the many different levels of their being.

 

The following is a list of healing attributes associated with Copper crystals.

 

Mental: Copper is said to instill a sense of justice whilst it also lends itself to playful and fun creativity.
 
Emotional: Copper brings harmony and a sense of beauty to all. It offers love for all human beings.
 
Physical: Copper is well known as an arthiritic healing aid. It also strengthens the brain and liver and alleviates muscle cramps and menstrual pain. It is used for fertility purposes too.
 

 

Crystal Chart – Copper

 

Crystal: Copper
Mineralogy: Natural Element
Geometric form: Cubic
Formation: Secondary
Family: Native
Birthstone: Copper is associated with the Astrological signs of Taurus and Sagittarius.
Apperance: Soft, fine fibrous pollycrystalline.
Aura: Copper is a conductor of energies of all things spiritual. It provides balance, synchronicity and opens up communication channels.
Colour: The colour copper is a distinct reddish brown.
Chakra: Copper is associated with the Root Chakra and secondary to the Sacral Chakra. It works with all the Chakras to draw in higher energies and open communication channels.

 

 

 

International Crystals – References and resources:

 

Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals, Earthdancer Books, 2009

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Crystal, 6th ed. 2014

World of Earth Science, Quartz, 2003

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Crystal Healing, 2001

http://gemstone-dictionary.com/birthstones-by-month.php

New Oxford American Dictionary

 

 

 

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