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Copper – International Crystals Encyclopedia


Originthe place or situation from which something comes, the beginning of something’s existence, the point from which it starts out, the thing from which it is ultimately derived.
Copper is a precious metal that has a red/orange metallic luster. It is present in the earth’s crust and can be found as a polycrystal.


The majority of copper is extracted from huge open pit mines as copper sulfides, it can also be found in crystals such as chalcocite and chalcopyrite, copper carbonates like malachite and azurite and cuprite which is classed as a copper oxide. The metal can also be extracted through the in-situ leach process which involves hydraulic drilling with a leaching solution to pump the copper to the surface.


All crystals belong to a different group according to the basis of the relationships of their axes. There are 7 systems and 32 classes of symmetry. Copper belongs to the face –centered Cubic system.


Historythe past considered as a whole, the whole series of past events connected with someone or sometihing, a continuous typically chronological record of importance.
Copper has been used for over 10,000 years and has a history that can date back to the oldest civilizations. It is estimated that it was discovered in the Middle East as a pendant of copper was found in Northern Iraq that dates back to 8700 BC.


It is said that copper smelting was implemented in China around or before 2800 BC, in Central America around 600 AD and estimated at around 9th/10th AD in West Africa. A male, named when found as Otzi the Iceman, was thought to date back to 3300 BC and was discovered with a copper headed axe. His hair contained high levels of arsenic which was thought to suggest his involvement in copper smelting from that time.


Today copper is so widely used that concern has been raised over its reserves. Copper is recyclable and is used as an electricity conductor among many other things. Copper bracelets are widely used to ward off arthiritic symptoms.




Specificationthe act of describing or identifying something precisely, a detailed description of the design and materials used to make something.
Copper appears alongside Silver and Gold in Group 11 of the Periodic table. It has a filled d-electron shell with a one s-orbital electron placed on top of it.

Copper is extremely soft and has a high thermal conductivity which is a factor in its extremely high electrical conductivity. It is usually fine grained in polycrystalline form and has a high ductility in single crystals.


Varietiesa number or range of things of the same general class that are different or distinct in character or quality.
Copper appears commonly as a compound, alloy or oxide. There are many different varieties of these.



Esoteric Attributesa quality or feature as characteristic of or possed by something.
Crystals by their very nature are able to receive and focus energy in different ways. Their molecular structure enables them to be used to amplify and convert energy and hence crystals have been used for centuries to aid healing and transmute energy both in the metaphysical and physical world.


Because each crystal family has different formational backgrounds, each also has different vibrtional frequencies that can be harnesed and used for specific purposes. Each therefore have specific qualities that can be used to help a person heal on the many different levels of their being.


The following is a list of healing attributes associated with Copper crystals.


Mental: Copper is said to instill a sense of justice whilst it also lends itself to playful and fun creativity.
Emotional: Copper brings harmony and a sense of beauty to all. It offers love for all human beings.
Physical: Copper is well known as an arthiritic healing aid. It also strengthens the brain and liver and alleviates muscle cramps and menstrual pain. It is used for fertility purposes too.


Crystal Chart – Copper


Crystal: Copper
Mineralogy: Natural Element
Geometric form: Cubic
Formation: Secondary
Family: Native
Birthstone: Copper is associated with the Astrological signs of Taurus and Sagittarius.
Apperance: Soft, fine fibrous pollycrystalline.
Aura: Copper is a conductor of energies of all things spiritual. It provides balance, synchronicity and opens up communication channels.
Colour: The colour copper is a distinct reddish brown.
Chakra: Copper is associated with the Root Chakra and secondary to the Sacral Chakra. It works with all the Chakras to draw in higher energies and open communication channels.




International Crystals – References and resources:


Michael Gienger, Healing Crystals, Earthdancer Books, 2009

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Crystal, 6th ed. 2014

World of Earth Science, Quartz, 2003

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology, Crystal Healing, 2001

New Oxford American Dictionary




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Covellite derives its name from its founder Nicholas Covelli who first found them in Italy. Covellite is a rare copper sulphide mineral. It is a copper based stone. The mineral is associated with chalcocite. It is commonly found with and occurs as coatings on chalcocite, chalcopyrite, bornite, enargite and pyrite.

It is commonly found as a secondary copper mineral in deposits. It forms in weathering environments near the surface in deposits where copper is the primary sulphide. It also forms as descending surface water in the supergene enrichment zone oxidizes and redeposits covellite on hypogene sulphides. Covellite has a unique crystal structure due to the conditions of its formation. It is restricted to hydrothermal conditions. It undergoes a complex oxidation process which depends on the state and history of its sulphides. Ammonium metavanadate is an important catalyst for covellites solid state transformation from other copper sulphides. It occurs as thin platy hexagonal crystals and rosettes also massive to granular.

It ranges in colour from dark blue to black with a shimmer of gold or red colour on the surface. Sometimes there are hints of a purple rose iridescence. Covellite can be found in Montana in USA, Italy, Germany, Sardinia, Wales, Alaska and Peru.


Covellite improves feeling of well-being, harmonises stress and rest and promotes ingestion, detoxification and sexuality. It heals problems with the ears, nose, mouth and sinuses. It eliminates toxins and removes dense energies.


Covellite is a stone to transform your dreams into reality. It enhances positivity and brings miracles into your life. It promotes self-love, self-recognition and helps with discontentment, arrogance and vanity. It helps accept oneself as one is. It helps find solutions to problems and ways to accomplish goals. It relieves despondency, depression and anxiety.

It enhances intuitive and psychic abilities. It strengthens the connection to the higher self.


It stimulates the third eye energies making it a wonderful stone to use during the dream stone, it enhances dreams and helps remember details about them. As a copper based stone it has a natural ability to pull out stuck energy, unhealthy mental and physical patterns, emotional traumas and any lower energy that no longer serves us.




Mineral : Sulphides
Geometric Form : Hexagonal
Formation : Secondary
Family: Sulphides
Colour Ray: Blue
Birthstone: Libra Sagittarius
Appearance: Blue Iridescent
Aura: Blue
Colour: Blue
Chakra: Third Eye





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